TitleThe Ups and Downs of Cognitive Function: Neuroticism and Negative Affect Drive Performance Inconsistency.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsMunoz, E, Stawski, RS, Sliwinski, MJ, Smyth, JM, MacDonald, SWS
JournalJ Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci
Date Published2020 Jan 14
KeywordsAdult, Affect, Age Factors, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Cognition, Cognitive Aging, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Neuroticism, Personality Inventory, Reaction Time, Young Adult

<p><b>OBJECTIVES: </b>Response time inconsistency (RTI)-or trial-to-trial variability in speeded performance-is increasingly recognized as an indicator of transient lapses of attention, cognitive health status, and central nervous system integrity, as well as a potential early indicator of normal and pathological cognitive aging. Comparatively, little research has examined personality predictors of RTI across adulthood.</p><p><b>METHODS: </b>We evaluated the association between the personality trait neuroticism and RTI in a community-dwelling sample of 317 adults between the ages of 19-83 and tested for two indirect pathways through negative affect (NA) and cognitive interference (CI).</p><p><b>RESULTS: </b>The personality trait neuroticism predicted greater RTI independent of mean response time performance and demographic covariates; the results were age-invariant. Furthermore, NA (but not CI) accounted for this association and moderated mediation model results indicated that older adults were more vulnerable to the adverse effects of NA.</p><p><b>DISCUSSION: </b>Neuroticism predicts greater RTI irrespective of mean performance and this effect is driven largely by heightened negative emotionality that may be particularly detrimental for older adults.</p>

Alternate JournalJ Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci
PubMed ID29590450
PubMed Central IDPMC7179809
Grant ListR01 AG026728 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
P2C HD042849 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
F32 AG056134 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
R01 AG039409 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
R21 AG045575 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States