TitleUnpaid Caregiving Roles and Sleep Among Women Working in Nursing Homes: A Longitudinal Study.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsDePasquale, N, Sliwinski, MJ, Zarit, SH, Buxton, OM, Almeida, DM
Date Published2019 May 17
KeywordsAdult, Caregivers, Female, Health Personnel, Humans, Interviews as Topic, Longitudinal Studies, Nursing Homes, Sleep Deprivation

<p><b>BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: </b>Although sleep is a critical health outcome providing insight into overall health, well-being, and role functioning, little is known about the sleep consequences of simultaneously occupying paid and unpaid caregiving roles. This study investigated the frequency with which women employed in U.S.-based nursing homes entered and exited unpaid caregiving roles for children (double-duty-child caregivers), adults (double-duty-elder caregivers), or both (triple-duty caregivers), as well as examined how combinations of and changes in these caregiving roles related to cross-sectional and longitudinal sleep patterns.</p><p><b>RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: </b>The sample comprised 1,135 women long-term care employees who participated in the baseline wave of the Work, Family, and Health Study and were assessed at three follow-up time points (6-, 12-, and 18-months). Sleep was assessed with items primarily adapted from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and wrist actigraphic recordings. Multilevel models with data nested within persons were applied.</p><p><b>RESULTS: </b>Women long-term care employees entered and exited the unpaid elder caregiving role most frequently. At baseline, double-duty-child and triple-duty caregivers reported shorter sleep quantity and poorer sleep quality than their counterparts without unpaid caregiving roles, or workplace-only caregivers. Double-duty-elder caregivers also reported shorter sleep duration compared to workplace-only caregivers. Over time, double-duty-elder caregiving role entry was associated with negative changes in subjective sleep quantity and quality.</p><p><b>DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: </b>Simultaneously occupying paid and unpaid caregiving roles has negative implications for subjective sleep characteristics. These results call for further research to advance understanding of double-and-triple-duty caregivers' sleep health and facilitate targeted intervention development.</p>

Alternate JournalGerontologist
PubMed ID29360993
PubMed Central IDPMC6524484
Grant ListU01 HD051217 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
U01 HD051256 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
U01 OH008788 / OH / NIOSH CDC HHS / United States
U01 AG027669 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
U01 HD059773 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
U01 HD051276 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
U01 HD051218 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
F31 AG050385 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States