TitleCombining Formal and Informal Caregiving Roles: The Psychosocial Implications of Double- and Triple-Duty Care.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsDePasquale, N, Davis, KD, Zarit, SH, Moen, P, Hammer, LB, Almeida, DM
JournalJ Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci
Date Published2016 Mar
KeywordsAdult, Caregivers, Cross-Sectional Studies, Delivery of Health Care, Family Health, Female, Health Personnel, Humans, Occupational Diseases, Patient Care, Stress, Psychological

<p><b>OBJECTIVES: </b>Women who combine formal and informal caregiving roles represent a unique, understudied population. In the literature, healthcare employees who simultaneously provide unpaid elder care at home have been referred to as double-duty caregivers. The present study broadens this perspective by examining the psychosocial implications of double-duty child care (child care only), double-duty elder care (elder care only), and triple-duty care (both child care and elder care or "sandwiched" care).</p><p><b>METHOD: </b>Drawing from the Work, Family, and Health Study, we focus on a large sample of women working in nursing homes in the United States (n = 1,399). We use multiple regression analysis and analysis of covariance tests to examine a range of psychosocial implications associated with double- and triple-duty care.</p><p><b>RESULTS: </b>Compared with nonfamily caregivers, double-duty child caregivers indicated greater family-to-work conflict and poorer partner relationship quality. Double-duty elder caregivers reported more family-to-work conflict, perceived stress, and psychological distress, whereas triple-duty caregivers indicated poorer psychosocial functioning overall.</p><p><b>DISCUSSION: </b>Relative to their counterparts without family caregiving roles, women with combined caregiving roles reported poorer psychosocial well-being. Additional research on women with combined caregiving roles, especially triple-duty caregivers, should be a priority amidst an aging population, older workforce, and growing number of working caregivers.</p>

Alternate JournalJ Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci
PubMed ID25271309
PubMed Central IDPMC4757948
Grant ListU01OH008788 / OH / NIOSH CDC HHS / United States
R24 HD041023 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
R03 AG046393 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
U01HD059773 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
U01HD051276 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
U01AG027669 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
U01HD051217 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
U01HD051256 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
U01HD051218 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States