TitleAdditive Effects of Forecasted and Reported Stressors on Negative Affect.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsScott, SB, Kim, J, Smyth, JM, Almeida, DM, Sliwinski, MJ
JournalJ Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci
Volume74
Issue1
Pagination29-37
Date Published2019 01 01
ISSN1758-5368
KeywordsAdult, Affect, Aged, Anticipation, Psychological, Ecological Momentary Assessment, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Stress, Psychological
Abstract

<p><b>Objectives: </b>Many studies of daily life have framed stressors as unpredictable disruptions. We tested age differences in whether individuals forecast upcoming stressors, whether individuals show anticipatory stress responses prior to stressors, and whether having previously forecasted any stressors moderates stressor exposure on negative affect.</p><p><b>Method: </b>Adults (n = 237; age 25-65) completed surveys five times daily for 14 days on current negative affect, stressor exposure, and stressor forecasts.</p><p><b>Results: </b>Older age was associated with slightly greater likelihood of reported stressors but unrelated to forecasted stressors. Following forecasted stressors, individuals were four times more likely to report a stressor had occurred; age did not moderate this effect. Even prior to stressors, current negative affect was significantly higher when individuals forecasted stressors compared to when no stressors were forecast. No support was found for forecasts buffering effects of stressors on negative affect and age did not moderate this interaction. Instead, the effects were additive.</p><p><b>Discussion: </b>In an age-heterogeneous sample, individuals showed early and persistent affective responses in advance of stressors. Anticipatory stress responses may be a mechanism for chronic stress.</p>

DOI10.1093/geronb/gby068
Alternate JournalJ Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci
PubMed ID29878185
PubMed Central IDPMC6294232
Grant ListP01 AG003949 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
R01 AG039409 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
R03 AG050798 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States